Table of Contents
Subjective Questions with Answers
Q1. Enlist the objectives and targets of Pakistan’s foreign policy.
What is Foreign Policy?
No country, in the modern world can survive independently in total seclusion of others. Every state as a member of the comity of nations is bound to establish a relationship with other states. The policy a state adopts in the process of establishing relations with other states is called foreign policy, It has been defined as:
The general plan of one country concerning its relations with other countries.
Objectives and targets of Pakistan’s Foreign Policy
The target and objectives of Pakistan’s foreign policy are as following:
- Preservation of national independence
- Support for the right of self-determination for all nations
- Promotion of International Cooperation
- Regional Cooperation
- Unity of the Muslim World
Preservation of National Independence
The main objective of Pakistan’s foreign policy is to preserve National Independence. The preservation of our national independence has always remained the paramount principle of our foreign policy.
Support for the rights of self-determination for all nations
In international forums, Pakistan always rendered full support to the cause of the nation’s fighting for independence. The basic target of our foreign policy is to support the right of self-determination for all nations including the people struggling in Kashmir, Bosnia, Libya, Indonesia, Eritrea and several other Asian and African countries.
Promotion of International Cooperation
Pakistan became the member of the United Organization in the very next month after its independence. As a member of the UN, Pakistan always had struggled hard to bring about International cooperation Pakistan used her good offices for the conciliation among different countries of the world on many occasions. In this respect, Pakistan’s efforts to bring about a cease-fire between Iraq and Iran during their along drawn-out war needs special attention.
We are living in a bi-polar world generally divide into Socialistic and Capitalistic blocks. Since Pakistan fought its way to freedom based on ideology, based on the principles of Islam. We can’t become the blind camp-followers of either of the two ideological blocks we have always tried to establish cordial relations with all countries of the world, irrespective of their ideological affiliations. In 1979, Pakistan joined the NAM as a regular member.
Regional cooperation and work for the peace of the region are one of the main tasks of Pakistan’s foreign policy. For this purpose, Pakistan entered into a pact with an Iran and Turkey, which was known as RCD. This pact has now been named as ECO. Pakistan has always a friendly relationship with its neighbour
Unity of the Muslim World
The main objective of Pakistan’s foreign policy is to establish the Unity of the Muslim World
Pakistan’s foreign policy has been marked by a complex balancing process- the result of its history, religious heritage and geographic position. The primary objective of that policy has been to preserve Pakistan’s territorial integrity and security, which have been in jeopardy since the state’s inception.
Q2. What are the most significant factors that determine the foreign policy of our country?
Pakistan’s foreign policy has been marked by a complex balancing process- the result of its history, religious heritage, and geographic position. The primary objective of that policy has been to preserve Pakistan’s territorial integrity and security, which have been in jeopardy since the state’s inception. Pakistan’s foreign policy is based on the following factors:
- Islamic Identity
- Pakistan Ideology
- Regional Factors
Pakistan foreign policy is based on Islamic identity. The Islamic theory of nationhood is based on religion. It believes in faith and belief to be the distinctive feature amongst the nations. The Muslims are a distinct nation from the other nations of the world on an account of their religious beliefs and rites.
Pakistan Ideology was based on the “Two Nation Theory” which meant that Muslims and Hindus are two separate nations and both nations are quite different from each other. Pakistan ideology is based on the fact that the Muslims are a separate nation, having their civilization, their customs, their own culture, their religion and a different way of life from Hindus. Sir Sayyad Ahmad Khan said:
“I look to both Hindus and Muslims with the same eyes and consider them as my own eyes. By the word ‘Nation’, I mean only Hindus and Muslims and nothing else. We, Hindus and Muslims live together on the same soil under the same government. Our interest and problems are common and therefore, I consider them the two factions as one nation.”
Pakistan is situated in a region of great economic, political and military importance. Among its neighbouring countries are China and Russia which are reckoned to be among the countries recognized as superpowers. The industrial progress of the Western countries depends upon the oil of the Gulf States. This oil is carried through the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean. Karachi is an important port of the Arabian Sea. The Foreign policy of Pakistan can, therefore, affect the movement of oil.
Q3. Give a detailed account of the relations between Pakistan and the People’s Republic of China?
Pakistan’s Relation with China
Pakistan has an enduring, multi-dimensional and comprehensive relationship with China, this is an all-weather friendship which is not subject to the vagaries of time. It is based on mutuality of interest. Expediency finds no place in our abiding ties of friendship and cooperation. We have always stood by each other. Our ties with China constitute a corner-stone of our foreign policy and a fundamental element in our quest for regional peace and stability. Both countries are poised to enter the new millennium as partners.
History of Pak-China Relations
Pakistan recognized the People’s Republic of China on 4 January 1950 and the two countries established diplomatic relations a year later. Over the year Pakistan’s friendly relation and mutually beneficial cooperation with China have continued to acquire great strength and substance. The vast spectrum of bilateral cooperation between our two countries ranges from political, economic and cultural spheres to the fields of defence and security.
Pakistan has always stood by China on all issues important to China, especially those related to the questions of China’s sovereignty e.g. Honk Kong, TAIWAN and Tibet and other sensitive issues such as human rights especially at the UN Human Right Commission in Geneva. They are also generous in acknowledging the significant role of Pakistan in the early ’70s, which enabled China to break its isolation from the West and the US.
China is a vital and reliable friend in Pakistan. Our relations have remained steadfast over the decades. Viewed in the light of global dramatic continued permanence of Sino-Pakistan relations is remarkable. These relations, based on complete trust and understanding are strong and forward-looking. The relations with China have served as a check on the hegemonistic tendencies of some other countries in the region.
Under the Cultural Exchange Programme, the Chinese Government annually offers 20 scholarships to Pakistani students while the Government of Pakistan offers 6 scholarships to Chinese students. International Islamic University, Islamabad offers 6 scholarships to the Chinese students nominated by the China Islamic Association. IIU also offers participation in its seminars.
China has been a close and dependable friend of Pakistan since 1972. The friendship, despite many adversities, has stood the test of time. It has grown and expanded in all direction to include science, technology, education and defence into its fold, side by side with the diplomatic cooperation. Enlisted here are a few projects completed or being carried out in Pakistan with the Chinese assistance.
The Karakorum Highway
The Highway made land traffic possible between the two countries. The volume of trade carried out between the two countries through this route is expanding day by day. Construction of this highest land route in the world, cutting through the formidable mountains was not an easy task, a great number of Pakistani and Chinese workers laid their lives during the process of its construction.
The Heavy Mechanical Complex Taxila
This Complex has been designed for the production of heavy machinery. (Sugar mills and the like)
The Heavy Electrical Complex, Taxila
Heave Forde and Foundry
The tank was produced here
Pakistan Aeronautical Complex, Kamra
Military aircraft are repaired and overhauled in this complex. Pakistan’s indigenous aircraft Mashka was designed and produced completely in this complex.
A new seaport as Gwadar (Balochistan) is being put up with the Chinese assistance. It is believed that this new seaport will bring about a revolution in Pakistan’s economy, improving Pakistan’s interaction with the landlocked Central Asian Muslim States, and help Pakistan meet her naval defence requirement in a better way.
Due to the scarcity of resources and absence of technical know-how, Pakistan was unable to make use of the large copper. A big project for this purpose has now been made feasible with the Chinese Assistance.
Cooperation for the Improvement of Pakistan Railways
System of Railways in Pakistan is being upgraded and improved with the technical assistance provided by the People’s Republic of China. Under this Programme, a new train i.e. Karakorum Express, with facilities matching international standards has been launched.
Cooperation in the field of Nuclear Energy
To meet its deficiency in the energy sector, Pakistan has built a nuclear power station at Chashma (District Minawali) with Chinese assistance.
This is only an incomplete list of projects launched in Pakistan with the Chinese assistance; there are numerous other departments and sectors in which the two countries are cooperating usefully. Pak-China relationship is based on mutual trust and peaceful co-existence, this cooperation is free from aggressive designs against any other country of the world.