Table of Contents
Subjective Type Questions with Answers
Q1. Give an account of the injustice done by Radcliff on the issue of demarcation of boundaries? How did Pakistan suffer due to these injustices?
Background of the Radcliff Award
According to the 3rd June 1947 Plan, the provinces of Punjab and Bengal were to be divided into Muslim and non-Muslim majority areas. The Muslim majority areas would become a part of Pakistan. To execute this division, two boundary commissions were nominated. One commission was for Punjab and the other was for Bengal.
The Members of the Radcliff Award
Sir Radcliff, a British lawyer was the head of the Boundary Commission. The detail of the other members of the commission is as follows:
The Responsibilities of the Award
The responsibilities of the Award were:
- To demarcate the boundaries of the Muslim majority and Hindu majority areas of Punjab and Bengal.
- To divide the areas in a just and righteous way.
Lord Mount Batten’s Role
Lord Mount Batten played a partial role in the division of the provinces. He wanted to benefit the Hindus. So, he planned an unjust division of the provinces.
Sir Radcliff’s Role
Sir Radcliff handed over the Muslim majority areas to India. This was the worst example of biasness against Muslims. The Muslim and Hindu members of the commission could not agree with each other and Sir Radcliff took this decision solely with the invisible assistance of Lord Mount Batten. The private secretary to Sir Radcliff, later on, admitted that the arbitrator killed justice.
Muslim Majority Areas Handed Over to India
Three tehsils of District Gurdaspur namely Pathan Kot, Batals and Gurdaspur, and Tehsil Zeera of District Ferozepur were handed over to India. These were Muslim majority areas and it was sheer injustice to include these areas into India.
The dispute of Jammu and Kashmir …… the consequence of Radcliff Award
Sir Radcliff provided a land route to India to move into Jammu and Kashmir. The headworks constructed on the land of West Punjab was also handed over to India.
Sir Radcliff not only snatched the rights of the Muslims by his unjust Radcliff Award but he also sews the seed of permanent enmity between India and Pakistan.
Q2. Give an account of the administrative problems faced by Pakistan immediately after partition.
The creation of Pakistan was a great victory of the democratic idea of life. The Indian Muslims happily and valiantly laid down their lives and properties to achieve their destination. The creation of Pakistan was the realization of their dreams of living an independent life free from Hindu or British dominance. Quaid-e-Azam on August 15, 1947, said:
“My thoughts are with those valiant fighters in our cause who readily sacrificed all they had, including their lives, to make Pakistan possible.”
Initial Difficulties of Pakistan
From the beginning, Pakistan faced a large number of problems. Some of the initial difficulties were:
- Choice of Capital and Establishment of Government
- Unfair Boundary Distribution
- The massacre of Muslim refugees in India
- Division of Military and Financial assets
- Canal Water Dispute
- Kashmir Dispute
- Constitutional Problems
- The annexation of Princely states
- Electricity problem
Choice of Capital and Establishment of Government
The first problem that Pakistan had to face was to choose a capital to form a government and to establish a secretariat. Karachi was chosen as the capital of Pakistan. Quaid-e-Azam took the office of the Governor-General, Liaquat Ali Khan was appointed as Prime Minister and a Cabinet of experienced persons was selected. Arrangements were to be made to bring the officials who had opted for Pakistan from Delhi to Karachi.
Unfair Boundary Distribution
A boundary commission was set up under a British Chairman, Sir Cyril Radcliff. He misused his powers and handed over Muslim majority areas like Gurdaspur, Ferozepur, Jullander to India hence providing them with a gateway to Kashmir. Quaid-e-Azam called it:
“An unjust, incomprehensible and even perverse award”
The Massacre of Muslim Refugees in India
On the birth of Pakistan, Hindus and Sikhs became more furious. In a planned move, Muslim properties were set on fire and they were compelled to leave Bharat for Pakistan with nothing but their lives. Millions of refugees were killed before they reached Pakistan. Many migrants were looted and had to be provided boarding immediately as they reached Pakistan.
Division of Military and Financial Assets
To embarrass Pakistan financially, India did a lot of dishonesty in the matters of Pakistan, which were concerned with its benefits. Pakistan was promised to get Rs 750 million but the Bharat Government refused to give. Pakistan received only 200 million. Pakistan also did not receive the due share of the military assets. This dishonest attitude put Pakistan into great difficulties.
Canal Water Dispute
Most of the rivers flowing in Pakistan have their origin in India. In 1948, India stopped water supply to Pakistani canals to damage Pakistani agriculture. However, on September 9, 1960, an agreement called “Indus basin Treaty” was signed between the two countries.
Kashmir Dispute is the most important and unsolved problem. Kashmir is the natural part of Pakistan because at the time of partition 85% of the Kashmir’s total population was Muslim. The Hindu Dogra rule, who was secret with the Government of India, declared Kashmir as a part of India. Pakistan had continuously insisted that Kashmir must get their right of self-determination but due to non-cooperation of India, Kashmir issue remain unsolved.
The constituent assembly failed to frame a constituent even in eight years. Lack of a permanent constitution created chances of unscrupulous interference in the democratic progress of Pakistan.
The annexation of Princely States
All Indian princely states were given the right to link up with either of dominions. However, the fate of following states remained undecided.
The Muslim Nawab governing Junagadh favoured in acceding to Pakistan. But Indian Government sent Army troops towards Junagadh and occupied the State by force in November 1947.
Hyderabad Deccan was the largest and richest state ruled by Muslim ruler Nizam who decided to remain independent. But pressure tactics began to be applied by the Indian government and Mount Batten. India attacked Hyderabad on September 13, 1948, and forcibly annexed this state to India.
Due to transfer of Muslim majority areas to Bharat and of unfair demarcation, electricity system of West Punjab was disrupted, because all power stations were at Mundi, a predominantly Muslim majority area, gifted to Bharat but Quaid-e-Azam said:
“If we are to exist as a nation, we will have to face the problems with determination and force”
Pakistan came into being as a free Muslim state in quite unfavourable circumstances. It had no resources; it had to build up its administrative machinery from a scratch. But supreme efforts were made by the Quaid-e-Azam and his colleagues to grapple with the situation. His golden principles “Unity”, “Faith” and “Discipline” gave way to Pakistan for a bright future of a strong and well-developed country. In his last message to the nation on August 14, 1948, he told the nation:
“The foundation of your state has been laid and it is now for you to build and build as quickly and as well as you can.”
Q3. Write a note on the Indian government’s attitude regarding the distribution of military equipment and other assets after partition?
The Total Currency in United India
At the time of independence, the total currency reserves of United India were estimated as Rs. 4 Billion.
Pakistan’s share in these reserves was Rs 1 billion, but the government of India agreed to pay only Rs 1 billion, but the government of India agreed to pay only Rs 75 crore (0.75 billion). The balance of Rs 20 crores was withheld on one pretext or the other.
Later Gandhiji interfered and got Pakistan paid Rs. 50 crores but the balance amount of Rs 5 crore was never paid.
The government of India made the 20 percent debt of the United India Pakistan’s liability.
Mutilated Records and Equipment
Pakistan inherited mutilated and spoiled official record from India. The Hindus had mutilated even the hospital equipment before leaving for India.
Division of the military assets began when the process of partitions started; Liaquat Ali Khan demanded the transparent formula for the division of the armed forces and their assets should be advised. Defence Minister Sardar Baldev Singh and the Commander in Chief ignored his demand. However, In July 1947 it was decided that the armed forces would be divided into two parts. A committee under the Chairmanship of Field Marshal Auchinleck was formed to implement the scheme. The Indian government did everything to flout the Auchinleck Committee’s efforts for a just division of assets. Disappointed at the Indian government’s uncompromising attitude the Field Marshall decided to wind up his task four months ahead of time. Sending a report, the British government on September 28, 1947. Auchinleck wrote:
“I have no hesitation, whatever, in affirming that the present Indian Cabinet are implacably determined to do all in their power to prevent the establishment of the Dominion of Pakistan on a firm basis.”
The departure of the Committee gave India a free hand to fulfil its designs. The Indian government gave Pakistan only a small part of her share in the military assets, even that was not in working condition and was badly mutilated. The aircraft and ships sent to Pakistan were not in working condition. At the time of partition, there were sixteen ordinance factories in the Sub-continent all went to Indian share. Thus, Pakistan started its new life with a small military force having meagre resources.
Q4. Write a short note on the Kashmir issue?
Pakistan had to face a sea of troubles and toils right after its birth. There was a long of trials, however the most important of these was the dispute of Jammu and Kashmir.
Location of the State of Jammu and Kashmir
The State of Jammu and Kashmir is situated in the North of Pakistan. It was the largest princely state in the Sub-continent. This state is contoured to Pakistan, China, Tibet and Afghanistan.
The population of the State
The total population of the State of Jammu and Kashmir was 4 million according to the census of 1941.
Area of the State
The area of the state was 84471 sq. km
A Muslim State
The state of Jammu and Kashmir is predominantly a Muslim state with Muslims being the majority in the area.
Kashmir and Dogra Rajas
The British Government sold the whole area of the state to Dogra Raja, Gulab Singh for Rs. 75 lacs only in the year 1846. The Raja and his successors played havoc with the Muslims of the state. The Muslims were crushed socially, economically and culturally.
Freedom Movement in Jammu and Kashmir
The struggle for Independence from the Dogra atrocities started much before the Pakistan movement. The Raja restated the freedom fighters with an iron hand but spirit for freedom can never by crushed through atrocity. The Kashmir even today are struggling to win the destination of freedom. They aspire for annexation with Pakistan “Kashmir banay ga Pakistan” is the main slogan of Kashmiri people.
Kashmiri ties with Pakistan
The State of Jammu and Kashmir is very close to Pakistan both on religious as well as geographical grounds. Most of the revivers that irrigate the soil of Pakistan flow from Kashmir. The Kashmir is emotionally attached to Pakistan. Therefore, they pressed the Raja to join Pakistan.
Fake Annexation of Kashmir with India
Raja did everything to crush the freedom movement of the Kashmiri people. He forced slaughtered 2 lac Kashmiris but the movement got momentum with time. Being unable to handle the situation in Kashmir, the Raja requested India to come to his rescue. Indian government offered help on the condition to get Raja’s signature on the document of annexation. Raja utterly refused and the Indian government prepared a fake document of annexation in which the state of Jammu and Kashmir had annexed with India.
The Kashmiri people did not lose heart even after such a grim situation. They kept on fighting with the Indian army for their cause until they got liberated a large area of Kashmir. This area is under the control of Pakistan and is called Azad Kashmir.
The Interference of the Security Council
Soon India got frightened of the Kashmiri’s freedom frenzy. When the situation became tense on the line of control, the Indian government bought help of the Security Council of the United Nations. The Security Council intervened and passed two resolutions.
Two Resolutions of the Security Council
The Security Council passed the following resolution.
- Both the parties (Pakistan and India) were advised to accept a cease-fire.
- The dispute of Kashmir must be resolved according to the aspirations of the people. For this purpose, a plebiscite was not be held.
The Kashmiri freedom fighters co-operated with the Security Council to bring about peace.
Two Wars between Pakistan and India over the Kashmir Issue
The armed struggle stopped in Kashmir on Security Council’s promise of holding a plebiscite. But unfortunately, the Security Council could do nothing in face of the interests of the major powers. The plebiscite could not be held and the Kashmir is deprived of their basic rights. Pakistan was denied justice. This tyranny led to two wars between India and Pakistan. The wars resulted in nothing but blind bloodshed. Security Council passed more resolutions but nothing was done practically.
The dispute of Jammu and Kashmir has not been resolved for many decades. India has sent a large number of army personnel in the valley of Kashmir who is writing chapters of tyranny on the annals of the history. The problem of Kashmir is still pending on the agenda of the United Nations. Now and then, many resolutions are passed but these resolutions prove nothing but lip service.
Q5. What important steps were taken immediately after partition regarding constitution-making and formation of the government?
On 3rd June 1947, Lord Mount Batten, the last Viceroy of India, called the conference of all the leaders of the Sub-continent and communicated to them his Government’s Plan for the transfer of power. At that time, a notification was issued in the Gazette of India, published on July 26, 1947, in which the first Constituent Assembly of Pakistan was given shape with 69 Members (later on the membership was increased to 79), including one Female Member. Constituent Assembly of Pakistan set up in 1947. To frame a constitution for Pakistan. The Quaid-e-Azam Mohammed Ali Jinnah was elected president of the constituent assembly of Pakistan on August 11, 1947.
The First Session of the Constituent Assembly
The first session of the first Constituent Assembly of Pakistan was held on August 10, 1947, at Sindh Assembly Building. Karachi, On August 11, 1947, Quaid-e-Azam was elected unanimously as the President of the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan and the Assembly formally approved the National Flag.
Committee of Fundamental Rights
On August 12, 1947, a resolution was approved regarding officially addressing Mr. Muhammad Ali Jinnah as “Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah”. On the same day, a special committee called the “Committee on Fundamental Rights of Citizens and Minorities of Pakistan” was appointed to look into and advise the Assembly on matters relating to fundamental rights of the citizens, particularly the minorities, to legislate on these issues appropriately.
The Quaid-e-Azam’s Address to Assembly
Addressing to the assembly the Quaid-e-Azam gave a policy statement regarding the principles of policy to be followed by the state of Pakistan in the days to come. He said:
- The future constitution of Pakistan will be based on Islam.
- It will be democratic.
- Muslims and non-Muslims citizens shall enjoy equal rights.
- No discrimination will be made based on religion.
- The government of India act would be adopted as the interim constitution after making some amendments in it.
Formation of Government
Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan headed the first government of Pakistan and it chose the seaport of Karachi as its capital. Jinnah considered the founder of Pakistan and hailed as the Quaid-e-Azam (Great Leader), became head of state as Governor-General.
Problems Faced by the Government
The government faced many challenges in setting up new economic, judicial and political structures. It endeavoured to organize the bureaucracy and the armed forces, resettle the Mohajirs (Muslim refugees from India). And establish the distribution and balance of power in the provincial and central governments. Undermining these efforts were provincial politicians who often defied the authority of the central government and frequent communal riots.
The First Government Cabinet
Under the Quaid-e-Azam’s guidance, Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan formed a five-member cabinet on August 15, 1947. The members of this cabinet were of outstanding inability. Being the Governor-General of Pakistan, the Quaid-e-Azam had an impartial and neutral position and did not interfere in the matters of the cabinet. However, the cabinet sought the Governor General’s advice in various matters. The Quaid-e-Azam had the power to veto cabinet decisions.