Subjective Type Questions with Answers

 

 

Q1. What is the composition of the Federal legislature in Pakistan? (Separate narration of Senate and National Assembly composition is no required)

Answer

The formation of the Federal Legislature

The Federal Legislature (Majlis-e-Shoora) consists of a lower house and an upper house. The lower house, the National Assembly, has 2017 Muslim members elected directly for a term of five years in addition to 10 members representing minorities. The upper house, the Senate, has 87 members who are indirectly elected and serve six years, with one-third retiring every two years. Of the 87 senators, 19 are elected by each of the four provincial assemblies, 8 are returned by the tribal areas, and 3 are elected from the Federal Capital Territory. Both the National Assembly and the Senate hold two sessions annually, with not more than 120 days between the last day of one session and the first day of the next. The principal function of the Senate is advisory.

The National Assembly may adopt a resolution of no confidence in the prime minister, provided the resolution names with another member of the Assembly as successor. Such a resolution may not be moved during the budget session and may not be voted on before the expiration of three days or later than seven days after its introduction. A no-confidence resolution cannot be introduced in the National Assembly for six months after one has been rejected.

The president, who is indirectly elected by an electoral college comprising members of both houses of the Federal Legislature and provincial assemblies, is empowered to dissolve the National Assembly and fire the prime minister. The 1985 constitutional revision that granted the president that power has been controversial and destabilizing, however, and it may be modified to limit the president’s power to fell the government.

Decisions of the National Assembly are taken by a majority of the members present and voting, and the quorum is one-fourth of the membership. Members enjoy full immunity against criminal prosecution for their acts within parliament. Constitutional amendments must pass by a two-thirds majority in each house and must be signed by the president.

The Federal Legislative List, which identifies subjects within the sole legislative purview of parliament, is divided into two parts based on the house of original jurisdiction. Legislation on national defence, nationality and citizenship, foreign affairs, civil service, and a wide range of other items may be introduced only in the National Assembly. I the Assembly passes the legislation; it is forwarded to the Senate. Within ninety days the Senate may either pass the bill with or without amendments or reject it. The National Assembly reconsiders an amended or rejected the bill, and if passes again by that body, with or without amendment, the bill is forwarded to the president for assent and publication.

All money bills originate in the National Assembly and after adoption by the National Assembly are presented directly to the president. All other proposed legislation-constitutional amendments and bills relating to items in the second part of the Federal Legislative List or the Concurrent Legislative List—may be introduced in either house. If passed by one house, Legislation is transmitted to the other house, and if it is passed without amendment in the latter house, it is presented to the president for signature. Should the second house reject or fail to pass the bill within ninety days, or should the second house pass it with an amendment, the bill must then be considered at a joint sitting of the Federal Legislature. The president is required to sign the bill within seven days; if he or she fails to do so, the bill becomes law automatically.

The role of the executive in parliamentary deliberations is defined in the constitution. The president may send messages to parliament and also may address both houses in a joint session at the beginning of a new term. The prime minister, cabinet ministers, ministers of state, and the attorney general have the right to take part in parliamentary debates but not the right to vote.

The constitution creates several advisory bodies to which the Federal Legislature and executive may turn. These include a Council of Common Interests, which advises on policies related to natural resources, transportation, and industry; a National Security Council; and a Council for Islamic Ideology, which advices on the conformity of legislative proposals and executive administration to Islamic principles.

 

 

 

Q2. Describe the composition and functions of the National Assembly of Pakistan under the 1973 constitution.

Answer

National Assembly

According to the Constitution of 1973, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a Federal State comprising four provinces of Balochistan, the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP), the Punjab and Sindh, Islamabad as the capital territory; and the Federally Administrated tribal Areas (FATA). These federating units offer a lot of diversity and variety in terms of languages, levels of social and economic development, population density and climate condition. At the Federal level, the focal point of the political arrangements is the Parliament, which comprises the President, the National Assembly and the Senate.

Sovereign Legislative Body

The National Assembly of Pakistan is the country’s sovereign legislative body. It embodies the will of the people to let them be governed under the democratic, multi-party Federal Parliamentary System. Through its debates, adjournment motion, question hour and Standing Committees, the National Assembly keeps as check over the Executive and ensures that the government functions within the parameters set out in the Constitution and does not violate the fundamental rights of citizens. Only the National Assembly, through its Public Accounts Committee, scrutinizes public spending and exercises control of expenditure incurred by the government.

Tenure

The National Assembly is elected for a five-year term based on adult franchise and one-man-one-vote. In a country with 97 percent Muslim population, and minimum chance of a non-Muslim securing a general seat, 10 seats have been reserved for non-Muslims in a House of 342 sears. 60 seats are reserved for women who are indirectly filled based on a proportional representation system based on the number of general seats won by each political party from the province concerned in the National Assembly.

Functions

The National Assembly is required by the Constitutional to meet for a minimum of 130 working days in a year. Its working is normally divided into various sessions. The busiest session coincides with the passage of the federal budget in May/June every year. The National Assembly enjoys exclusive powers to consider money bills including the annual budget. The Prime Minister is, as such, a member of the National Assembly who enjoys the confidence of the majority of the members in the House. The Cabinet, in turn, is collectively responsible to the Assembly.

The Speaker

The National Assembly is presided over by the Speaker who is given wide powers to regulate the working of the legislature. Also, the Speaker is the spokesman of the house to the outside world and is supposed to be non-partisan in his approach.

Legislation

The main purpose of the legislature is to make laws in respect of matters enumerated in the Federal Legislative List as well as the Concurrent Legislative List.

Composition and Elections

There are 345 seats in the National Assembly of Pakistan. Every citizen of Pakistan aged 26 or above is eligible to become a member of the House if he or she wins from his or her electoral ward in an election. The people in competitive multi-party elections, to be held at most five years apart, elect members of the National Assembly.

Dissolution

The President of Pakistan may dissolve the Assembly before the end of its regular five-year term, at his initiative. Supreme Court approval or veto- or at the initiative of the Prime Minister. If dissolved, new elections are conducted for the Assembly. Article 58. Of the Constitution of Pakistan deals with the dissolution of the Assembly.

Article 58

The President shall dissolve the National Assembly if so advised by the Prime Minister; and the National Assembly shall, unless sooner dissolved, stand dissolved at the expiration of forty-eight hours the Prime Minister has so advised.

 

 

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Q3. Describe the composition and functions of the Senate of Pakistan under 1983 constitutions.

Answer

Senate

Introduction of a bicameral Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) under the Constitutional of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, adopted on April 12, 1973, led to the creation of the Senate of Pakistan as a legislative body in addition to the National Assembly. The Senate of Pakistan is the Upper House of Parliament. It came into existence on August 6, 1973, when the members took the oath of office and signed the Roll of Members.

Composition

The Senate, as a legislative body, derives equal representation from all the four federating units and has a total membership of 100. The Provisional Assemblies of the four provinces elect 22 members each from their respective provinces. Of this, 14 are for general seats and 4 for seats reserved of Ulema, professional and technocrats and 4 women. Eight members represent the FATA, whereas the Federal Capital has four seats in the Upper House of Parliament.

Elections

The Senate of Pakistan is a permanent legislative body and symbolizes a process of continuity in national affairs. The Constitution lays out the methodology for the election of the Senate. About one-half of the members are elected for a six-year term after every three years. The qualifications required for a member to be elected to the Senate are that he should not be less than thirty years of age and should be registered as a voter in an area of the province from where he is seeking election.

Chairman and Deputy Chairman

Chairman and Deputy Chairman hold office for three years. The Senators through secret ballot elect them by a majority vote when the vacancy occurs. The Chairman, under the Constitution, may be called upon to act as President of Pakistan during the absence abroad of the President or after the office of the President becomes vacant by resignation, death or removal. He would hold the office of the President till a person, formally elected as President, takes over by the Constitution.

Working Days

The Senate is required to meet for a minimum of 90 days and hold at least three sessions in a year. It is summoned and prorogued by the President. The Chairman of the Senate is also competent to call a session requisitioned by at least ¼ of the total members of the House, and is also empowered to prorogue a session summoned upon the requisition of members.

Secretariat

The Senate has its secretariat to regulate its work and maintain its administrative setup. Secretary of the Senate is the administrative head of the Secretariat. He is also ex-office Secretary of all the Senate Committees.

Journal

The Senate maintains a verbatim record of proceedings, which is supplied to members on-demand. It also brings out a journal containing a brief account of the Senate proceedings, information regarding committees and any other matter of interest, which the Chairman may like to include.

 

 

 

Q4. What is the composition of federal administration under the 1973 constitution? Also, enlist its important functions?

Answer

Compulsory Functions of Urban Councils

Pakistan four provinces enjoy considerable autonomy. Each province has a governor, a Council of Ministers headed by a chief minister appointed by the governor, and a provincial assembly. Members of the provincial assemblies are elected by universal adult suffrage. Provincial assemblies also have reserved seats for minorities. Although there is a well-defined division of responsibilities between federal and provincial governments, there are some functions on which both can make laws and establish departments for their execution. The provincial governments, for example, provide most of the services in areas such as health, education, agriculture and roads. Although the federal government can also legislate in these areas, it only makes national policy and handles international aspects of those services.

The Legislative Organ of the Government

Federal Legislative of Pakistan has been named as Parliament. Our Parliament is bicameral. It is composed of two houses:

  • The National Assembly
  • The Senate

The bicameral federal legislature consists of the Senate (upper house) and National Assembly (lower houses, According to Article 50 of the Constitution, the National Assembly, the Senate and the President together make up a body known as the Majil-e-Shoora (Council of Advisors)

The National Assembly

The Members of the National Assembly are elected by universal adult suffrage (over eighteen years of age in Pakistan). Seats are allocated to each of the four provinces, The Federally Administrated Tribal Areas, and Islamabad Capital Territory based on population. National Assembly members serve for the parliamentary term, which is five years, unless they die or resign sooner, or unless the National Assembly is dissolved. Elections for minority seats are held based on separate electorates at the same time as the polls for Muslim seats during the general elections.

The Senate

The Senate is a permanent legislative body with equal representation from each of the four provinces, elected by the members of their respective provincial assemblies. There are representatives from the Federally Administrated Tribal Areas and Islamabad Capital Territory. The chairman of the Senate, under the constitution, is next in line to act as president should the office become vacant and until a new president can be formally elected. Both the Senate and the National Assembly can initiate and pass legislation except for finance bills. In the case of other bills, the president may prevent passage unless the legislature in joint sitting overrules the president by a majority of members of both houses present and voting. Unlike the National Assembly, the President cannot dissolve the Senate.

The Executive Part of the Government

The executive organ of the government is formed of:

  • The President
  • The Prime Minister

The President

The president, in keeping with the constitutional provision that the state religion is Islam, must be a Muslim. Elected for a five-year term by an Electoral College consisting of members of the Senate and National Assembly and members of the provincial assemblies, the president is eligible for re-election. But no individual may hold the office for more than two consecutive terms. The president can dissolve the National Assembly. “In his direction were in his opinion…… a situation has arisen in which the government of the federation cannot be carried on by the provisions of the constitution and an appeal to the electorate is necessary”. The Thirteenth Amendment, which was passed in 1997, revoked this power. In December 2003, the president’s power was partially restored by the Seventeenth Amendment. In April 2004, an Act of Parliament that established the National Security Council, a body chaired by the President, augmented the presidency’s influence.

Prime Minister and Cabinet

The President among the members of the National Assembly appoints the prime minister. The prime minister is assisted by the Federal Cabinet, a council of ministers whose members are appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister. The Federal Cabinet comprises the ministers, ministers of state, and advisers.

Federal Judiciary:

The Judiciary includes:

  • The Supreme Court
  • Supreme Judicial Council

Supreme Court

The Supreme Court has original, appellate, and advisory jurisdiction. The president appoints the chief justice of the Supreme Court, the president appoints the other Supreme Court judges after consultation with the chief justice. The chief justice and judges of the Supreme Court may remain in office until age sixty-five.

Supreme Judicial Council

Supreme Judicial Council can make recommendations about the removal of a judge based on serious disability.

 

 

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Q5. How Provincial governments are formed and what functioned do they perform in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan?

Introduction

Answer

According to the constitution, Pakistan is a federation. The country is divided into four autonomous (self-governing) provinces; two federally administrated areas; and Islamabad Capital Territory, which consists of the capital city of Islamabad.

The four provinces are Balochistan, NWFP, Punjab and Sindh. Governors appointed by the president head the provinces. Under the constitution, each province has a directly elected provincial assembly headed by a chief minister. However, the provincial assemblies were suspended following the 1999 military cup.

The Islamabad Capital Territory, FATA, and the FANA are under the jurisdiction of the federal government. In the FATA, however, tribal leaders manage most internal affairs. Control of the territory included within FANA and Azad Kashmir is a matter of dispute between Pakistan and India.

Provincial Governments

Pakistan’s four provinces enjoy considerable autonomy. Each province has a governor, a Council of Ministers headed by a Chief Minister appointed by the governor, and a provincial assembly.  Members of the provincial assemblies are elected by universal adult suffrage. The provincial governments, for example, provide most of the services in areas such as health, education, agriculture, and roads. Although the federal government can also legislate in these areas, it only makes national policy and handles international aspects of those services.

 

 

 

Q6. Give an account of the targets and expectations proclaimed by the authors of the Devolution Plan?

Answer

Introduction

In October 1999, the politically elected government was overthrown as the military took over power in Pakistan. The Military Government immediately came up with a seven-point agenda called “Devolution Plan”. This plan was made to address the so-called institutional crisis and to advance national reconstruction.

The targets and expectation of the Devolution Plan were as follows:

  • To rebuild national confidence & morale
  • To strengthen the federation and remove inter-provincial disharmony
  • To revive and restoring investor confidence
  • To ensure law and order and dispensing speedy justice
  • To depoliticize state institutions
  • To develop the power to the grass-root level
  • To ensure swift and across the board accountability

 

 

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Q7. Give an estimate of Hazrat Omer’s (RA) system of government in respect of democracy and rights of Ministries?

Answer

Despite much rhetoric on the part of governments of various hues, good governance, rule of law and real democracy is a dream that unfortunately does not seem to come true in the Islamic world. For a sincere government, however, there is a lot to learn in the way Hazrat Omer (RA), the rightly-guided second caliph, ruled more than 14 hundred years ago.

Hazrat Omer’s (RA) Caliphate

The total area of his caliphate was around 23 lac sq. miles with continuously expanding its frontiers. To rule over such a big caliphate stretched from Libya to Makran and from Yemen to Armenia, Hazrat Omer (RA) had to establish an entirely new administrative system. For the Arabs, it was for the first time that such a central government was established.

Hazrat Omer’s (RA) Democracy

Hazrat Omer (RA) believed in shura and what today we call the devolution of power. He would not decide without the consultation of the assembly of the great companions. Common people were also consulted on matters of special significance.

Consultation

He used to say “There is no concept of a caliphate without consultation”. The roots of modern democracy can be seen in the administration of Hazrat Omer (RA) at a time when the whole world was ruled by despotic kings and emperors.

Vigilance and accountability

Hazrat Omer (RA) divided the whole country into provinces and smaller units. He followed a very strict standard for the appointment of governors and took particular care to appoint men of approved integrity to high offices under the state.

He kept a watch over them like a hawk, and as soon as any lapse on their part came to his notice, immediate action was taken. Before assuming his responsibility, a governor was required to declare his assets and a complete inventory of his possessions was prepared and kept in record.

If an unusual increase was reported in the assets of a governor, he was immediately called to account and the unlawful property was confiscated by the state. At the time of appointment, a governor was required to pledge:

  • That he would not ride a Turkish horse
  • That he would not wear fine clothes
  • That he would not eat sifted flour
  • That he would not keep a porter at his door; and
  • That he would always keep his door open to the public

That is how it was ensured that governors and principal officers would behave like common people and not like some extraordinary or heavenly creatures.

Service above self

Hazrat Omer (RA) was a man of inflexible integrity. He believed in simplicity and had contempt for pomp and luxury. Strong sense of justice, accountability before the law, and equality for all were some of his cherished ideals. He took particular pains to provide effective, speedy and impartial justice to the people.

Supremacy of Law

He was the first ruler in history to separate the judiciary from the executive. Qazi’s judges were appointed in sufficient numbers at all administrative levels for the administration of justice. They were chosen for their integrity and learning in Islamic law. High salaries were fixed for them and they were not allowed to engage in trade.

In one of his ordinances issued to judicial officers, Hazrat Omer (RA) laid down the following principles: “Verily justice is an important obligation to God and man. You have been charged with this responsibility. Treat the people equally in your presence, in your company, and your decisions, so that the weak despair not of justice and the high-placed have no hope of your favour…”

Social security

Hazrat Omer (RA) took particular steps to build a social order according to the teachings of Islam. He brought about far-reaching reforms in the social, economic and political sphere of collective life. It is but he who could say: “If a dog dies at the bank of Euphrates, Omer (RA) will be responsible for that”.

Rights of Minorities

The caliph upheld the principle that there is no coercion in religion and the non-Muslim population was guaranteed life, liberty and property. The non-Muslims were treated as full citizens of the state. Even on his death-bed, the caliph thought of the state’s responsibility to the non-Muslim citizens.

In his bequest to his successor, he said

“My bequest to my successor is that covenants with Ahl-ud-Dhimma i.e. the people of the Covenant or Obligation should be observed faithfully.

  • They should be defended against all invasions.
  • No injustice should be done to them.
  • They should be treated as full-fledged citizens and should enjoy equality before the law.
  • Their taxes should be fair, and no burden should be imposed on them which they cannot bear.

Hazrat Omer’s (RA) treatment for the non-Muslims was exemplary. The Muslims wanted to build a mosque in Syria. For that purpose, the house of Christian was demolished. When Hazrat Omer (RA) got this news, he restored the Christian’s house.

Equality

The high standard of integrity that Hazrat Omer (RA) set for himself and his family members should be emulated by the rulers of today, particularly those of the Muslim world. The allowance that he drew was just enough for a person of average means, When the people around him insisted that his allowance should be raised, he refused to accept any increase. He ate the most ordinary food and wore clothes of the coarsest cloth.

Once he was late for the Friday prayer and the explanation that he offered was that he had his clothes washed, and took some time to dry which delayed his departure for the mosque. The envoy found no place and no guard.

He found the caliph sitting in the mosque in the company of ordinary people. When he went to Palestine to receive the surrender of the city of Jerusalem the world witnessed the strange spectacle of his slave riding the camel, and he walking on foot holding the reins of the camel.

Service of the People

He created a land revenue department and was the first ruler under whom the survey and assessment work of land was undertaken. He was the first Muslim ruler to take a census, strike coins, organize police department, and set up jails. He established guest houses in all cities, rest houses on road-side from Madinah to Makkah for the comfort of travellers.

Diminished Slavery

Hazrat Omer (RA) took special measures to minimize slavery. He ordered that any female captive who had given birth to a child should not be sold as a slave. He established schools through the country and allowed generous salaries to school teachers. His caliphate was, in fact, great welfare and egalitarian state.

Conclusion

Hazrat Omer (RA) was a great companion and a loyal friend of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), May peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. Before his death, Hazrat Abu Bakr, with the consultation of the Companions, had appointed him as the Caliph. He was assassinated by a Persian free slave, Abu Lulu Fairoz, and embraced Shahadat on first of Muharram, 24 Hijri.

 

 

 

Q8. Give an estimate of Hazrat Umar’s (RA) system of government.

Answer

Hazrat Umar (RA) for the first time established such a perfect system of government that would serve as a role model for times to come. History of many of the successful systems and practices applied in the modern states dates back to Hazrat Umar’s (RA), he was the pioneer and innovator of the system like:

  • Population census
  • Division of the country into provinces and administrative divisions.
  • Appointment of Governors and functionaries and their accountability to the head of the state.
  • Posting of the Tax Collectors (Sahib-ul-Kharaj) in each province
  • Appointment of the Police Chief (Sahib-ul-Ahdath)
  • Appointment of the Secretary (Katib)
  • Appointment of the Finance Minister (Sahib-e-Bait-ul-Maal)
  • Appointment of Justices (Qaziz) in all the provinces.
  • Establishment of a Divan (Secretariat) to maintain the account of the salaries and financial assistance paid to the soldiers and the families of the Mujahidin.
  • Establishment of a standing Army and a system of assigning ranks to army personnel.
  • Putting up several military cantonments permanently; each of these cantonments was called ‘Jund’. More famous among these were Fistaat, Basrah, Koofah, Dimashk (Damascus) Mosal, Himas, Urdun (Jordan) Philistine (Palestine) and Medina. Hazrat Umar (RA) was the first ruler who established separate departments for rendering authentic opinions in the light of Islamic Shari’ah (Ifta), and implementation of penalties on criminals (Hudood and Taziraat). He also established post and income tax departments. Put up mosques at public places and built new roads.

 

 

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Q9. How did Hazrat Umar (RA) assure the supremacy of law and accountability of the government functionaries?

Answer

Vigilance and accountability

Hazrat Umar (RA) divided the whole country into provinces and smaller units. He followed a very strict standard for the appointment of governors and took particular care to appoint men of approved integrity to high offices under the state.

He kept a watch over them like a hawk, and as soon as any lapse on their part came to his notice, immediate action was taken. Before assuming his responsibility, a governor was required to declare his assets and a complete inventory of his possessions was prepared and kept in record.

If an unusual increase was reported in the assets of a governor, he was immediately called to account and the unlawful property was confiscated by the state. AT the time of appointment, a governor was required to pledge:

  • That he would not ride a Turkish horse;
  • That he would not wear fine clothes
  • That he would not eat sifted flour
  • That he would not keep a porter at his door; and
  • That he would always keep his door open to the public

This is how it was ensured that governors and principal officers would behave like common people and not like some extraordinary or heavenly creatures.

Service above self

Hazrat Umar (RA) was a man of inflexible integrity. He believed in simplicity and had contempt for pomp and luxury. Strong sense of justice, accountability before the law, and equality for all were some of his cherished ideals. He took particular pains to provide effective, speedy and impartial justice to the people.

Supremacy of Law

He was the first ruler in history to separate the judiciary from the executive. Qaziz/Judges were appointed in sufficient numbers at all administrative levels for the administration of justice. They were chosen for their integrity and learning in Islamic law. High salaries were fixed for them and they were not allowed to engage in trade.

In one of his ordinances issued to the judicial officer, Hazrat Umar (RA) laid down the following principles: “Verily justice is an important obligation to God and man. You have been charged with their responsibility. Treat the people equally in your presence, in your company, and your decisions, so that the weak despair not of justice and the high-placed have no hope of your favour….”

Social Security

Hazrat Umar (RA) took particular steps to build a social order according to the teaching of Islam. He brought about far-reaching reforms in the social, economic and political sphere of collective life. It is but who could say “If a dog dies at the bank of Euphrates, Umar (RA) will be responsible for that.”

 

 

 

Q10. What are the obstacles interposed in the way of good governance and how can these be overcome?

Answer

Good Governance

Goof Governance is directly retiled to good citizenship. Good governance can be established only in a strong and stable political culture. Following are the obstacles interposed in the way of good governance.

  • Bad Citizenship
  • Illiteracy and Ignorance
  • Illiteracy and Ignorance
  • Poverty
  • War culture Oppressive political system
  • Corrupted social system

Bad Citizenship

Good governance is directly retiled to good citizenship. Good governance can be established only in a strong and stable political culture.

Poverty

The people here are poverty-stricken. Their only concern is earning bread and to lead a better-standard life. They are unwilling to render the sacrifices which good governance may demand from them.

War Culture Oppressive

Ours is a war culture, People’s minds are corrupted with many kinds of biases. They always keep criticizing each other. Because of this habit of struggling against each other, no system of government can succeed in the country.

Corrupted social system

Our society is corrupted, this corruption is the major hindrance in the way of good governance.

Remedies of these Obstacles

There is no short cut remedy to the vices of a bad political culture. The problem of good governance is not a simple one, it is very complex and complicated this is not one problem. It is amalgamate of a multitude of problems. Ignorance is the mother of all evils. Ignorance cannot be got rid of unless education is made universal. But a poor society cannot afford to educate its citizens for want of resources. Poor people fall easy prey to petty temptations offered to them by the self-serving politicians.

After the development of technology, was has become an extremely expensive enterprise. German dictator Adolph Hitler is known to be the most callous and ruthless of the world’s dictators. He idealized was as the noblest of human pursuits, he said that one who does not want to wage must perish, and nobility of a person, according to him could be judges only by the intensity of his love for war. Vanquished and spent out, as a result of his insane proclamation, Hitler had to admit at last, “In modern warfare, there are no conquerors, there are only the perished and the survivors.”

A nation determined to achieve the ideal of good governance should, first of all, say good-bye to war. History bears evidence that nations like the Chinese and the Japanese have achieved the highest possible standards of economics and social progress only by adopting a policy of peaceful co-existence with other nations of the world.

 

 

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Q11. What is the composition of the Union Councils it is required to perform under the new system of District government?

Answer

The Union Councils perform the basic municipal functions, either singly or through joint committees as and when necessary especially in the areas currently defined as towns. The Union government comprises the:

  • Union Nazim
  • The Naib Union Nazim
  • The Union Council, and the Union administration

The Union Council will ensure that the municipal needs of villages, (which for the first time are being recognized as municipal entities), are met adequately, either by developing local capacity or through liaison with the Tehsil Officer Municipal Standards and Co-ordination.

The assignments of the Union Council

The Union Council is organized into committees for monitoring specific functions of the district officers and service providers. This ensures the protection of citizens’ rights and improvement in the delivery of services; and promotes citizen participation in these matters. An additional opportunity for citizen participation is provided through public hearings of these committees. The monitoring committees of the Union Council, or the citizens themselves, may facilitate the creation of Citizen Community Boards in both Urban and rural areas. These boards are the primary means of the involvement of civil society in the local government.

The Purpose of the Union

The Union Council electoral system is designed to reduce divisive politics and create an environment for the growth of co-operative politics at the grass-root.

How the members of Union Councils are elected?

In rural unions, members are elected by direct vote, from a single or multi-member ward basis. Candidates receiving the highest number of voted (until the designated number of seats for that multi-members ward is filled) will stand elected.

The seats in the Union Councils

There is a total of twenty-one seats in a Union Council. The allocation of the seats is as follows:

            Column A            No. of Seats
Nazim 1
Naib Nazim 1
Muslim (male) 8
Muslim (female) 4
Workers/peasants (male) 4
Workers/peasants (female) 1
Minorities
Total 21

 

Functions of the Union Councils

The Union Councils are designed to perform the following functions:

  • To undertake development projects at a local level, by working in collaboration with village councils in rural areas, and the Citizen Community Boards in both Urban and Rural areas.
  • To heavy taxes to raise funds.
  • To prepare annual development plans to be carried out in his jurisdiction
  • To act as a conciliatory body to resolve civil, criminal and family disputes.

 

 

 

Q12. What is the composition of Tehsil administration, also give an account of its powers and functions?

Answer

The Formation of the Tehsil Government

The Tehsil government includes the Tehsil Nazim, the Naib Tehsil Nazim, the Tehsil Council, and the Tehsil administration. Tehsil governments have been established in all existing Tehsils except in cases of districts that comprise only one Tehsil. The integrated Tehsil Government mitigated the rural-urban frictions by providing opportunities for representation in proportion to the population and taxation in proportion to the services and thus effectively addressed the rural-urban divide:

The Tehsil government is formed of:

  • Tehsil Nazim
  • Tehsil Naib Nazim
  • Tehsil Assembly
  • Tehsil Administration

The Tehsil Council

The Tehsil Council is a directly elected body comprising Naib Union Nazims of all the unions of the Tehsil. Under this arrangement, all the union of a Tehsil will get representation at the Tehsil level. As the Union Nazim and Naib Union Nazim will be elected jointly, both will be operating in harmony in the interest of their union at all the three levels of the local government i.e. the union, the Tehsil, and the district.

Tehsil Administration

The Tehsil Nazim is head of the Tehsil Government. Under the Nazim, there is a Tehsil Municipal Officer (TMO) who is the coordination officer of the Tehsil administration. There are four Tehsil Officers (TOs) reporting to the TMO, one each for (i) Finance, Budget and Accounts (ii) Municipal Standards and Co-ordination (iii) Land Use Control (iv) Rural-Urban Planning. The municipal functionaries of the existing urban areas come under the charge of the Municipal Officer who is under the executive control of the Nazim through the Tehsil Municipal Officer.

Functions of the Tehsil Council

The Tehsil Council performs the following functions:

The first function of the Tehsil Council is the provision of the Municipal services within the Tehsil government.

The second function of the Tehsil Government is development through land-use control and master planning for every town and village across the Tehsil so that the Tehsil as a whole can develop in a coherent and integrated manner.

The third function of the Tehsil government is to monitor the work of the Tehsil administration and district government officials located in the Tehsil.

If Tehsil area becomes urbanized, it shall be raised to the status of a City District. The city district shall be divided into several towns based on population.

The Tehsil Council

The Tehsil Council is a directly elected body comprising Naib Union Nazims of all the unions of the Tehsil. Under this arrangement, all the union of a Tehsil will get representation at the Tehsil level. As the Union Nazim and Naib Union Nazim will be elected jointly, both will be operating in harmony in the interest of their union at all the three levels of the local government i.e. the union, the Tehsil and the district.

 

 

 

Q13. What do you know about the city district police and District Judicial system?

Answer

According to the new concept of devolution, law and order is the responsibility of the provincial government. The provincial government shall provide a police force for the maintenance of law and order in the district. The police shall however perform their duties under the guidance and institution of the district government. To make police answerable to the general public, a new system of accountability has been created at district and city district levels.

District Judicial system

The devolution plan 2000 speaks about new judicial principles as:

  • Quick and effective dispensation of justice
  • Provision of justice at the doorstep
  • Pre-emption of litigation
  • Decentralization of judiciary
  • Horizontal expansion of judiciary by establishing new small cause courts at the Tehsil level.
  • Establishment of special courts for women

 

 

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